Case studies

Case 1 – City center of Milan (Italy)


Reconstruction of the ancient Roman circus and neighborhood in the city center of Milan.
Here a complex mixture of Roman, Medieval, Spanish, Habsburg and late modern structures and architectures, nowadays enclosed and often hidden by the new metropolitan city.




Case 2 – Hadrian’s Wall and its landscape (UK)


UNESCO site dating back to around AD 120, which spanned ca 120 km. Parts of the monument now exist in heavily urbanised areas, others in intensively-farmed agricultural land.





Case 3 – Medieval walls of Avila (Spain)

CaseStudy3UNESCO site dating back to the 11th century, it was built to protect the Spanish territories from the Moors and it has 82 semi-circular towers and 9 gates.





Case 4 – Fortress City of Krakow (Poland)


UNESCO site built in 19th century, during the Age of Partitions, by the Austro-Hungarian Empire which decided to transform Krakow into a fortress city in order to defend it from another partitioner of the Polish land – the Russian Empire. Nowadays, the majority of the erected fortifications are forgotten and neglected, some are destroyed and only few are restored and visible.